Categorized | News

Evolutionary Lessons from 30,000 year old Child’s Teeth

Posted on 08 February 2010 by admin

A 30,000-year-old child’s teeth are shedding new light on the evolution of man. The findings and research are by The University of Bristol in the UK.

The teeth are part of the remarkably complete remains of a child found in the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal and excavated in 1998-9 under the leadership of Professor João Zilhão of the University of Bristol.

Classified as a modern human with Neanderthal ancestry, the discovery of the child’s teeth brings up all sorts of questions about how extensively Neanderthals and modern human groups of African descent interbred when they came into contact in Europe.


Photo courtesy of UCL Institute of Archaelology

‘Early modern humans’,  whose anatomy was very similar to that of us today, emerged over 50 millenia ago. Most of academia has presumed very little has changed in the physiological makeup of humans since then.

Many experts look over ‘modern humans’ and see no huge differences with us today. Preferring to look further back to the neanderthals for the real differences.

With this in mind, an international team, including Professor Zilhão, reanalysed the dentition of the Lagar Velho child (all of its deciduous – milk – teeth and almost all of its permanent teeth) to see how they compared to the teeth of Neanderthals, later Pleistocene (12,000-year-old) humans and modern humans.

Employing a technique called microtomography which uses x-rays to create cross-sections of 3D-objects, the researchers investigated the relative stages of formation of the developing teeth and the proportions of crown enamel, dentin and pulp in the teeth.

X-ray microtomography (XMT) is basically a miniaturised version of medical CT or CAT scanning. A series of X-ray projections are recorded at a number of angles around the specimen . In XMT, unlike medical CT, the specimen is usually rotated, rather than the X-ray source and detector.

They found that, for a given stage of development of the cheek teeth, the front teeth were relatively delayed in their degree of formation.  Moreover, the front teeth had a greater volume of dentin and pulp but proportionally less enamel than the teeth of recent humans.

The teeth of the Lagar Velho child thus fit the pattern evident in the preceding Neanderthals, and contrast with the teeth of later Pleistocene (12,000-year-old) humans and living modern humans.

Professor Zilhão says:

“This new analysis of the Lagar Velho child joins a growing body of information from other early modern human fossils found across Europe (in Mladeč in the Czech Republic, Peştera cu Oase and Peştera Muierii in Romania, and Les Rois in France) that shows these ‘early modern humans’ were ‘modern’ without being ‘fully modern’.  Human anatomical evolution continued after they lived 30,000 to 40,000 years ago.”

The team was led by Priscilla Bayle (Natural History Museum in France) and Roberto Macchiarelli (Poitiers University in France) and included Erik Trinkaus (Professor of Anthropology at Washington University, St.-Louis, Cidália Duarte (Câmara Municipal do Porto, Portugal), and Arnaud Mazurier (CRI-Biopôle-Poitiers, France).

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